Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. – The Ancient Water Palaces!

Our ancestors applied this knowledge in water resource engineering to address challenges arising from seasonal scarcity. They designed and constructed dams and an array of water structures much earlier than the Greek, Roman or other ancient civilizations. Every region of the country developed its own water harvesting techniques, reflecting the geographical peculiarities and cultural uniqueness of different communities. Baori’s, Jhalaras, Water temples, Step Wells, and Kunds were constructed wherever deemed necessary.

In villages of India, there are countless stories from mythology, folklore and songs extolling the glory of our sacred rivers and lakes. The story of Bhagirath single handedly diverting the mighty Ganga has been told from generation to generation. Archeological sites of Mohenjodaro and Harrappa which date back 5000 years throw light on the awareness of the civilization about water resource management for domestic and irrigation purposes. Water was considered the purifier and hence utilized for religious ceremonies and rituals. The Vedic seers in several hymns invoked “Varuna” the presiding deity of Water, and request him to be generous to mankind and remove all physical defilements. In the Vedic period people took precautions to use water free from all impurities and took great amount of care in adequate supply of clean, hygienic and unpolluted water. Ancient and medieval Sanskrit literature also reveals that people had adequate and plentiful supply of water for drinking, cooking, washing and other purposes. They were clear about water quality and that water used for drinking, medical and domestic purpose should be reasonably soft, colorless and odorless. Great efforts were made to test and analyze different types of water collected in different places in different seasons. It was this basic infrastructure, which served as the foundation for building large and powerful empires. World history, as indeed our own, is full with instances of rise and fall of empires and civilizations as a direct result of the strength or weakness in management of water resources.

As per the report of Meghalaya Public health Engineering department, the Satvahanas (1st Century B.C.-2nd Century A.D.) introduced the brick and ring wells. Lake and well irrigation was developed on a large scale during the time of Pandya, Chera and Chola dynasties in south India (1st-3rd Century A.D.) and large structures were built across Cauvery and Vaigai rivers. The Rajput dynasty (1000-1200 A.D.) promoted irrigation works in northern India. The 647 Bhopal lake was built under King Bhoja. In the Medieval period, Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 A.D.) encouraged the farmers to build their own rain water harvesting systems and wells. In 1615, during the Mughal rule, Abdul Rahim Khan built a unique water supply system of the Burhanpur town (Madhya Pradesh)[1].

The state built only the large storages essential for irrigation and water supply for the capital cities and important towns. These arrangements by the administration were obviously not enough and therefore the village communities and individuals were encouraged to build their own water harvesting strategy to meet their domestic requirement of water. The communities being closely knit had a strong culture of providing voluntary labor and material contributions for building infrastructure for common welfare. The social norms for civilized behavior, interalia, enjoined on the community members to maintain these facilities, conserve and protect water from pollution and ensure its equitable and fair distribution. Social scientists, historians and scholars have found that there is no problem of water scarcity where the community organizations are strong and the people

rely upon their own efforts to build water harvesting structures. On the other hand, the situation gets worse where the people depend entirely on the state for water. The wisdom of our fore fathers which made water management an integral part of human life guided communities through times of water scarcity. This meant that these practices were perceived by the common man as a sacred duty and by the communities as part of good local self-governance and social responsibility.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. suggests, the current and upcoming community based interventions under CSR and other development agencies should be driven by a vision of equitable distribution of resources for entire community. The mutual benefit of each household within the community should be clear and communicated with priority. The watershed projects should have behavior change tools mandatorily to bridge gaps within the community arising from caste and gender differences. The hidden employment schemes should also focus on community developed autonomously managed watershed units so that people of zero and marginal income groups also have a stake and feels accountable for the water resources. Water-Wisdom at all levels of society is essential not only to conserve water but to combat climate change and address sustainability of water resources at a global level and make fresh water available in abundance for future generations.

By Joyita Bhattacharya Pathak

Programme Team – Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd.

Resource: Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is associated with Health organizations for their CSR activities across India.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd – Need of Skill Development Initiatives in Urban Clusters

India is home to approximately 67 per cent of the population living under $ 2 a day. Poverty is widespread in India and is a predominantly a rural phenomena. However, people migrate from the rural areas to the urban in search of livelihood opportunities and it becomes important to provide them skill development trainings to uplift them out of poverty.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. understands for a developing country, skill and knowledge are drivers of economic and social growth. India is expected to be home of 500 million skill workers by 2022 which seems to be a difficult task. In order to achieve both the targets of economic growth and inclusive development, India needs to grow at more than 8 per cent. This means the secondary and tertiary sectors grows at 10 to 11 per cent, assuming agriculture grows at 4 per cent. Therefore, the demand for skilled workers in the secondary and tertiary sector will continue to rise in the coming years. This is good sign when every year 12 million people is expected to join the existing workforce.

Considering the fact that 12 million people are expected to join makes skill development in India an uphill task. This large workforce needs to be adequately skilled. This also means people migrating from primary to secondary or tertiary sector when the required set of skills is different from that of agriculture. This leaves a skill gap. Despite the ITIs and other govt. institutions, there is lack of infrastructure to formally train the workforce. Out of the present workforce of more than 450 million only 8 to 9 per cent are engaged in organized sector. In India, only about 5 per cent of the workforce has marketable skills, as compared to 50 per cent to 60 per cent in other countries.

India needs to take advantage of its demographic dividend and that can only happen when we achieve the target of 25 per cent of the work force with formal skills by the end of 2017. It is estimated that 50 -70 million jobs will be created in India over the next five years and about 75 per cent – 90 per cent of these additional employment avenues will require some vocational training. Looking at the demand of skilled man power there is a need to facilitate skill development trainings to the marginalized people in urban clusters. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. suggests this will reduce the skill gap and match the demand of workforce with adequate skills for employment in SMEs. Enhancement in skill development will ensure more income flows to the local economy which will in return ensure increase in consumption levels and boost the growth rate of secondary and tertiary sectors.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is associated with Health organizations for their CSR activities across India. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is working in development sector.

International Youth Day – Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd

1.8 billion people of the world population are youth. This day is observed every year to draw attention of government and other agencies towards to youth centric issues. The United Nations Generally Assembly passed a resolution accepting to observe 12th August to be International Youth Day. The assembly adopted 15 priority areas which included education, employment, hunger and poverty, health, environment, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, recreational activities, girls and young women, participation, globalization, Information and communication technologies, HIV/AIDS, Youth and conflict and Intergenerational relations. The theme for this year is “Youth and Mental Health.”

In a developing country like India, mental illness is shrouded in stigma, ignorance and superstition. There are approximately 20 million Indians suffering from mental illness. As per WHO, 20% of India’s population will suffer from some form of mental illness by the year 2020. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. believes that barely 1-2% of the health budget is dedicated to mental health, in comparison to 10 to 12% in other countries. In Medical colleges, students do a mere two week clinical posting at a psychiatry unit at the end of their training. There are less than 5000 psychiatrists addressing the issues of mental illness in the country. This is the importance that is given to this particular sector. What’s even disheartening is that 25 % of the mentally ill are homeless.

Mostly people suffering from mental illness face discrimination which leads to discouragement or exclusion of people who are trying to seek help because of the fear of stigma. This day provides the opportunity to speak out about these issues with the objective of overcoming stigma and discrimination to ensure that young people with mental health conditions can lead a full and healthy live free from isolation and unnecessary shame and openly seek the services and support they need. Youth plays a prominent role in development of a nation. A government needs to work towards increasing the available opportunities for the youth. Youth can play a pivotal role towards improvement of mental health in respect of training, research, and provision of clinical services to promote mental health in all sections of society. Efforts needs to be directed towards advocating the issue and helping the public become aware about the issue, which might also lead to an increased awareness. Even though India has trained manpower in general health services yet there is a limited number of mental health trained personnel based in urban settings. Youth will play a pivotal role towards improvement of mental health in respect of training, research, and provision of clinical services to promote mental health in all sections of society.

Resource: Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is associated with Health organizations for their CSR activities across India. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is working in development sector.

World No-Tobacco Day, 2014 – Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd.

May 31st is World No-Tobacco Day (WNTD), and this year’s aim is to encourage abstinence from all forms of tobacco consumption across the world for an entire day. Tobacco consumption is one of the biggest threats to public health and takes the life of 6 million people annually. It kills 600000 non-smokers who are affected by second hand smoke. This day spreads awareness about adverse affects of tobacco usage. This day is being observed from the last 26 years despite resistance from governments, smokers, growers and the tobacco industry.

WNTD was formulated by The World Health Organization in 1987. The theme for this year is “raising taxes on tobacco” thereby advocating for effective policies to reduce tobacco consumption. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. understands that only 8% of the world’s population lives in countries with sufficiently high tobacco taxes and therefore there is need to call for higher taxes in tobacco products.

Some appalling statistics on tobacco consumption as per WHO are:

Tobacco kills up to half of its users.The annual death toll could rise to more than eight million by 2030, unless urgent action is taken.Nearly 80% of the world’s one billion smokers live in low- and middle-income countries.Consumption of tobacco products is increasing globally, though it is decreasing in some high-income and upper middle-income countries.There are more than 4000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, of which at least 250 are known to be harmful and more than 50 are known to cause cancer.

A majority of the smokers live in low and middle income countries and their premature deaths deprive their families of income, thereby raising the cost of healthcare. It is an impediment towards economic development which also pushes children to engage in tobacco farming and Beedi rolling as an additional source of income. These children often suffer from green tobacco sickness, which is caused when the nicotine is absorbed through the skin while handling wet tobacco leaves. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd advocates for stronger legislative action by governments who must address issues of child labour, especially in tobacco farming.

India is world’s third largest producer of tobacco and world’s second largest consumer of tobacco. The nation needs to take some drastic measures to curb tobacco usage. The Union Health Ministry has roped in Rahul Dravid for its National Anti-Tobacco Campaign. India has played a crucial role in WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) negotiations and has been implementing strict measures to control tobacco usage. The ministry believes that anti-tobacco campaigns should continue till desired results are achieved. The target is 30 per cent reduction of tobacco usage by 2025. In order to achieve this some suggested interventions could include formation of a national comprehensive cessation service that is available to assist tobacco users to quit, and increased taxation on all tobacco products.

Rahul Choudhury

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd.

Resource: Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is associated with Health organizations for their CSR activities across India. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. was also the principal sponsor of the event ‘Better Healthcare Through CSR’.


Lately, the Social Media, Facebook and Twitter, had been replete with requests for donating blood. While most of us are aware that blood donation doesn’t have any negative impacts on one’s health or wellbeing, Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. complaints there has been a lackadaisical mindset amongst people to donate blood barring a few enthusiastic individuals. It was t an eye-opener when many hospitals in the city, Delhi could not meet the surplus demand of blood during the havoc created by Dengue in last t few months and alarmed the situation. This too was established during the recently organized blood donation drive Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. wherein only 120 individuals turned in for a noble cause out of which 44 members were from Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. fraternity.

Based on my observation and experiences, I think that, either we – ‘as a society’ have become too materialist in our pursuits . or have very less time for the very society we live in. The spirit of goodwill, kindness, helping, compassion and concern for the society has completely evaporated, today brands have become a badge of our personal honour and respect. It is worth mentioning that a majority of us try to blindly emulate them, which surely has cankered the fabric of the society. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. complaints if these pursuits are dovetailed with our societal concerns the latter will fall apart which would lead to humongous social implications, from social unrest to the deepening of class struggle etc.

With the above backdrop, I and Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. feel that; there needs to be an organized effort for creating awareness and sensitization to such campaigns, with a robust mechanism of Rewards and Recognition, which are meant for a cause for humanity. As it goes, ‘what gets measured, gets managed’ and keeping in mind societal preferences in perspective, a feasible concept of ‘Morality Bank APP’, based on the aspects of good deeds and community service, a points based system can motivate help build an excitement for a cause. This social model is based on the principle that rewards/recognition for performance(deeds) motivates an individuals to perform (perform as more human) in a better way. Different levels of awards would be accorded to various altruistic deeds for instance, handing the lost documents (100 points), donation of blood(250 points), eye donation(450), other body parts(650 points), hematopoietic stem cells(1000 points), so on, considering the level of service. The points/credits are redeemable for services like health check-ups(1000), house cleaning(400), salon services(200)etc. People who collect more than 6,000 points will win the accolade “Models of Community Morals.” Such a carefully designed generosity “Accounts” may create the necessary awareness aiming individuals about various such initiatives required in the society which otherwise were neglected. Along with encouraging the people to do good, they can also be encouraged to provide information about any miss-adventurism in the surrounding -if someone is throwing garbage on the road etc. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. comprehends this move, aims to result in developing a civic sense about their surroundings and checking the miscreants. In the form of corrective actions(admonishment), they can be asked to perform community service including sweeping the streets etc.

Also, recently the Good Samaritan bill has been introduced in the union legislature which again can give a boost to this cause as well. The cash-flows can be generated by roping in the corporate, governments individual donors for this noble cause. In sum, a Social Tech Enterprise like this would definitely go a long way to make world a better place to live in.

By Niraj Chaurasia

Resource Team – Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd.

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Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. – Rich cultural diversity, mythological relevance all bound together with strong traditions and beliefs, perfectly define the spirit of India. At its centre point lies Ganga, revered by the Hindu population in India. It is the largest river and is a source of livelihood for many individuals living near its coast for their daily needs. The very existence of the river holds a religious significance and is thus, worshipped as sacred.

It is believed that anyone who bathes in the holy river shall wash away all his sins. As a pilgrimage is important in Islam, taking a dip in the holy river is considered an opportunity of a lifetime in Hinduism. To realise this, thousands of people flock to the river.
Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. shares that with the religious connotations and beliefs comes its own share of problems. In 2007, Ganga was presented with the title of being the fifth most polluted river of the world. The polluted Ganga water has not only become a concern when it comes to human consumption, but also a challenge for the water animals to survive. It is home to more than 140 species of fishes, over 90 species of amphibians and the now endangered dolphins.

As a step towards improvement cleaning and preserving Ganges, the first phase of Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was launched in 1985. This step aimed at intoxicating the river basin from the hazardous effluents. Gradually, the campaign stretched across Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Bihar. In 1993, the holy river was designated to be a national river, and GAP was again put in motion with introduction of Ganga River Basin Authority. The authority considered the efficient upkeep of the river along with maintaining the minimum water levels to retain the ecological flow. The river has the ability to treat the biological wastes naturally but the excessive release of hazardous wastes in Ganges prevents the river to treat organic waste. The human settlement along its banks consumes the holy water and return only wastes. Even with the an efficient plan of GAP, the authorities have faced a lot of challenges – from lack of advanced technological expertise, loopholes in environmental planning to lack/no support from the religious authorities.

Recently after being questioned by the Supreme Court, the Modi Government presented a draft on the series of steps to be taken towards ‘Clean Ganga’. While the Finance Minister of India Mr. Arun Jaitley introduced a hundred percent tax deduction towards the project, the NDA government submitted an affidavit with the Supreme Court, suggesting continuous efforts to sterilize the Ganges in three phases – short term (3 years), followed by mid-term (5 years) and long term (10 years or more). It is believed to have rejuvenated 2,500 kms stretch of Ganges. The first phase shall involve 118 towns and cities for water waste treatment and solid waste management identified by the Ministry of Water Resources.

Progressing towards the medium term goal, the plan suggests the Ministry of Urban Development to expand its coverage of sewage infrastructure and generate awareness among 1,649 gram panchayats to make the region along the banks open-defecation free. The long term plan is estimated to involve a conglomerate of seven IITs to maintain geological and ecological integrity of the river.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt Ltd believes that the residents along the banks of the river and can help restore Ganga’s sanctity. They may do it by facilitating water treatment before discharging water in the larger water body, thereby helping maintain the standard quality of water. Also, waste-treatment plants shall be constructed in the nearby areas by building a sewage network. The treated effluents can then be considered to be re-used.

The divine, economic and ecological role of the Ganges justifies its significance in the lives of many Indians. Flowing since time immemorial, it has simply given to all and asked for nothing in return. It’s time for the mankind to endow the nature what was taken.

Author Bio: Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is associated with Health organizations for their CSR activities across India.Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. was also the principal sponsor of the event ‘Better Healthcare Through CSR’.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. – The Economics of Waste

Taking a leaf out of Shakespeare one can say ‘To Recycle or Not to Recycle’ is a dilemma that is often faced by people. The confusion is at every stage of recycle starting from what should be labeled, which bin the material needs to be put in and what the municipal administration accepts. All these processes actually determines which product is to be recycled.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. understands all these issues are common as consumers are not able to understand while dealing with wastes such as plastics, as to what makes the material recyclable? This common problem persists across the globe. People need to realize that when it comes to nature nothing goes to waste. Any waste that is generated is a resource that can be used by other organisms. The nature cycle is in loop system where a waste of one organism becomes food or resource for other organisms.

Today, it is believed that majority of the things are recyclable or it has the potential to be recycled. It is important for an emerging economy such as India to think on sustainable lines and promote start-ups in waste management sector. These enterprises can develop recycle processes for many different waste streams which were previously thought to be non-recyclable. Some of the materials than can be targeted are cigarette butts, plastic pouches, chip bags, diapers etc. All these can be recycled into useful products such as industrial plastic lumber etc. Therefore, it is important to look into all the waste that we once considered non-recyclable.

One major factor that creates hurdle in the recycle process is the economic barrier that restricts recyclability of materials. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. understands that in order to recycle a material, it is important that collection of waste happens in bulk. After collection, the wastes need to be separated, which gets difficult as wastes might be multi-layered or might have container made of plastics. The material gets recycled only once the entire process has taken place. Moreover, such a process has cost attached to it and when a recycled material is worth more than the cost involved in recycle, then only is it considered feasible and can be sold in open market. If the process costs more than the value of the recycled material, it doesn’t make any sense to recycle. With other factors such as infrastructure and technological advancements creating bottlenecks, more often than not it is economics and not science that determines what is to be recycled.

Therefore, in order to ensure that the recycle process is feasible, the following suggestions can be adopted:

* Commencing the waste management from the manufacturing stages of products

* Establishing recycle centres and other adequate infrastructure at district level nearby the collection points reducing transportation costs

* Creating awareness about waste management among local communities

* Improved collaboration among various stakeholders in the waste management value chain

* Incorporating advanced technology in the waste management processes

* Promoting recycled products among local communities

* Incentivizing waste management to promote startups and encourage involvement of large organizations

These initiatives can ensure the cost of recycle products gets reduced and recycled products are consumed more.

By Rahul Choudhury
Media Team – Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd.

Author Bio: Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is associated with Health organizations for their CSR activities across India.Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. was also the principal sponsor of the event ‘Better Healthcare Through CSR’.


Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. – History validate the rich culture and art of Varanasi, better known as Benaras or Kashi. From temples, mosques, ghats to the intricately embellished banarasi sarees, the city holds a historical significance. Since the time of it being the capital of Kasi kingdom, the place is believed to have bloomed into a handloom textile hub. Scripted in ‘Buddha Sutra’ and ‘Jataka Puran’, the place has been a significant center for silk and cotton fabrics. Towards the 5th and the 6th centuries, the woven cotton and silk fabrics gained recognition among various markets across the globe.

In 1603, the weavers from Gujarat migrated to Benaras. A new society, environment unveiled new avenues for these weavers to innovate new techniques and better designs. By the end of the century, the city had gained recognition as the textile capital of the region. During the period when Emperor Akbar reined the region, brocade and zari work further developed and was much acclaimed and recognized across the globe. Inspired from the Moghul art and culture, golden and silver zari and brocade textiles became its specialty. One can find the first mention of the city in the scriptures of 19th century.

In advancing centuries, the weavers started innovating intricate designs inspired from the Victorian motifs, style, colors and patterns. Traditionally knit through hand, the jacquard looms are now knit with the help of technology through power looms, with lesser effort and with quality standards maintained throughout.

A weaver from the clan, Azizur Rahman, invested his savings of a lakh and fifty thousand rupees to purchase a power loom. Rahman and his entire weaver- family had long dreamt of having their own power loom machine. Today, Rahman is delighted to witness reduced labor and increased output. The Uttar Pradesh government has given him and many of his weaver colleagues a subsidy on electricity to operate these machines. On the other hand, the technological development has led him to invest lesser efforts and make much lesser money per product. A handloom saree, which used to generate an income of rupees 20,000, when produced through power loom, today fetches rupees 2,500. Out of this, rahman is able to earn even a smaller fraction of the selling price as rest has to be shared with the middlemen who supply the raw material including cards, yarns etc. A power loom brings down the effort, and increases production volume states Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd.. A number of families are now following the same and manufacturing products with the power machinery. An increasing trend has been witnessed in a number of families transforming from handloom to power loom. This has raised concerns amongst the policy makers at Udyog Bhawan including ministry textiles. They are concerned about taking necessary steps for the handloom industry facing survival crisis.

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi believes that there exists an inverse relationship between the inflating prices and the earnings of the handloom weavers. However, he suggests, this shall be curbed by integrating the fashion industry with the weavers directly. This would not only provide better opportunities to help sustain the industry, but also benefit 43 lakh weavers, and indirectly benefit a crore people. The Prime Minister’s plan also includes inviting students studying fashion designing to visit the handloom cluster in Varanasi as a part of their industrial visits.

The government of India plans to create a new brand “India Handloom” to segregate the handloom products from power loom products. It has chosen two design houses – Sai Creation and Rinku Sobti Fashions through tendering process, which shall work with the handloom weavers to provide them with more than 2,200 new designs in two years and a buy back guarantee of finished products worth rupees 4.4 crores. This being a pilot project, the government shall remunerate the selected design houses with a reasonable fee and further replicate it in other places as well.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd believes that, through continuous efforts of GoI Handloom shall sustain for generations to come. Knitting contemporary fashion with antique hand-made (handloom) moghul-inspired art will make India SHINE on International Fashion radar and bring handloom dynasty towards progressive standard of living.

Aditi Singh
Programme Manager, Media Team
Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. – Natural Resources and its Fiscal Value

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. – In 18th century, Germany had a uniform narrow vision of looking at forest, mainly through the fiscal lens. In the process, it ignored the naturalistic (comprising of different type of flora like grasses, flowers, lichens, ferns, mosses, shrubs, and vines, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and innumerable species of insects and other fauna except those that interested the state) and anthropological (forest used for hunting and gathering, pasturage, fishing, charcoal making, trapping, and collecting food, valuable minerals, worship, magic etc) perspective.

Hence, in the view of state’s economic way of looking at forests came about scientific forestry in Prussia and Saxony which reduced fiscal management to scientific principles based on systematic planning in which plots were divided on the basis of yields. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. believes this overlooked the concept of diverse trees and their sizes. Johann Beckmann assigned I have colours nails to each kind of tree to count trees and applied the core volume principle to figure saleable timber of the various varieties of trees.

Felling of trees began in the bid to establish uniform armies of the same kind of a tree (Norway spruce) in a forest, as it had economic value. It was like a forest laboratory that took into account rainfall, weeding, fertilizer intake etc. As per Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. this standard type of forest was much easier to manage by the state compared to the varied elements that previously existed in a forest and it promised the state non fluctuating economic returns. However, this planned and unplanned felling resulted in soil degradation which made the soil weak against the storm and made the trees prone to pests as a single type of tree was more prone than mixed trees. Since the pest eating insects were gone the German state rule reintroduced artificial anthills and spiders to tackle the problem (Scott, 1998).

Similarly, in absolutist France in the 17th century the noble men, clergy etc. were not under the burden to pay tax and commonly owned land yielded no tax. However, things like tobacco, titles and offices were taxed. Troops were put in civilian homes so that people were forced to pay tax. This uniform state measure to extract tax ignored the local and the indigenous and their land as land value differed for differed regions. People were pressurized with feudal rents. Cadastral maps were created and land holdings were assigned with codes. Individual ownership of property was regulated by the state and the common property village land was removed. Cadastral maps ignored basic aspects like fertility and location and needed to be updated regularly. The meter system in France was not fair for all as measures were based on the position people held. At one hand this uniform system of taxation and extraction made governing much simple but on the other standardized land tenure system neglected local customs related to property (Scott, 1998).

Hence, the states approach of filtering and focusing on only one aspect can be viewed keeping in mind the issue of famines. As famines can be a result of food availability decline in a nation as well as the policies that do nothing to reduce famines. For instance, the 1947 famine occurred right after the soviet war in the tyrannical regime of the Soviet Union. The drought affected the state procurements much less than the peasantry. The net exports fell but the seed loans increased indicating that the state wanted to maintain agricultural production.

The state reduced exports as a mere response to famines but continued building its state grain reserves by pressurizing the peasants to deliver. The famines did see a drop in the state grain reserves but even then the reserves were enough to feed the people and were not utilized by the state. Planners reserves and other additional reserves were not used either (Ellman, 2000). Surplus stocks rose sharply. Soviet union previously had years of bad harvest, however, the condition was better before as state had sustained consumption by substantial grain stocks unlike in the famine of 1947.

Amartya Sen who has worked on famines believes based on his study of the great Bengal famine that having large food supply in the public distribution system can help to break famine, by rationing and having controlled shops, but people should not be excluded from the distribution system. The fishermen, agricultural labourers of Bengal who were excluded from the system suffered and died of starvation. In a similar way in some cases having large food supply in the hands of the state is not always the best thing to do as state will only feed those who are of priority to the state like in the 1947 famines where state fed only those peasants who contributed to the state grain reserves (Sen, 1981).

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is associated with Health organizations for their CSR activities across India. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd is working in development sector.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. – The Developmental State Model

An economy is a system whereby goods are produced and exchanged. Without a viable economy, a State will collapse. Fiinovation an organization working in the Corporate Social Responsibility sheds light on the institutionalist perspective of the economy. The institutionalist perspective of the economy transcends the structuralist development which downplayed the role of markets in the industrialization process and also rejects the neoclassical resurgence which asserts that success in industrialization is the outcome of free markets and limited state intervention. The institutional perspective is highlighted in the study of the East Asian economies like Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong which have achieved extraordinary rates of economic growth characterized by an egalitarian distribution of income. All successful cases of late industrialization have been the consequence of significant degree of State intervention, market incentives and a strong private sector. Therefore, Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. explains that the institutionalist perspective focuses on the right amount of market orientation and government intervention consistent with rapid and efficient industrialization. This model in other words could be referred to as the Developmental State Model (Onis, 1991).

The Developmental State Model and its variants:

The central theme of the Capitalist Developmental state given by Charles Johnson is Bureaucratic Autonomy in which market is guided by small scale elite bureaucracy recruited from the best managerial talent and the pilot agency within the bureaucracy that is significant to policy formulation and implementation. The politicians reign by legitimizing the actions of the bureaucrats and making space for their actions, for them to rule. In this model economic growth is associated with productivity and competitiveness which is the single minded priority of the state action. Conflict of goals is avoided as there is no commitment to concepts like equality and social welfare instead there is an underlying commitment for private property and market and state intervention is circumscribed by this commitment. There is close link between the elite bureaucrats and private sector enterprises as this is useful for exchange of information.

Policy formulation and implementation

Amsden and Wade build upon Johnson’s Capitalist Developmental model with respect to Japanese industrial policy. Wade gave governed market theory in which economic growth in East Asian countries was attributed to high levels of investment in specific industries with presence of state intervention and exposure of many industries to international competition in foreign markets. This strategic industrial policy involved adequate state intervention and specific political, institutional and organizational arrangements associated with state apparatus and private business as well as their interaction. Amsden talks about South Korea which has a guided market where market rationality is constrained by industrial priorities which is rapid industrialization with profit maximization on the basis of current comparative advantage. The government has tamed domestic and international forces by subsidizing selective industries on the basis of high income elasticities in the worlds markets, potential for technological growth and labour productivity growth. These industries are put in the market for competition. The economic growth is characterized by long term rationality investment and long term risks by the investors.

The state intervention has ensured price distortions resulting in greater investment in strategic sectors and avoiding monopoly. The government provides subsidies to these specific sectors and expects performance in return. It rewards the good ones and penalizes the poor however it refrains from bailing out firms unlike the policy of certain Western European countries. Restrictions are imposed in capital account encouraging capital accumulation rather than rent seeking, central banks have gathered utmost importance, technology has been acquired by investing in foreign licenses and technical assistance, foreign direct investment in terms of capital flow or technology has been limited, the state has invested in education and human capital formulation yet the concept of welfare state is absent. The Korean Developmental State model is based on support and discipline. Support in terms of the incentives given by the state in terms of the restrictions imposed by the state to avoid monopoly.

Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. – The developmental state model, hence, involves Bureaucratic autonomy and Private-Public sector cooperation which allows the state to formulate universal national goals which gets converted into policy formulation. In Latin America, the bureaucracy is said to be authoritarian leading to exploitative powerful groups working for private interests. In Taiwan, however, the bureaucratic autonomy exists but the Private-Public cooperation does not. The bureaucracy in East Asian countries includes the best managerial talent with similar mindsets. The accountability of the bureaucracy is ensured by the small bureaucracy, confined pilot agencies within the bureaucracy like MITI in Japan, EPB in Korea, responsible for implementation of policies to selected sectors of the economy, unusual division of labour within the state, military and bureaucrats- the executive keeps a check on the bureaucrats and the contribution certain elements within the civil society like the student protests in Korea. The Private- Public Sector cooperation has been ensured by the state as state provides the private sectors with incentives.

Resource: Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd. is associated with Health organizations for their CSR activities across India. Innovative Financial Advisors Pvt. Ltd is working in development sector.